terça-feira, 19 de março de 2019

Considerar humanos e não humanos como sujeitos de direitos

Em linhas gerais, o veganismo consiste num projeto epistemológico, político e individual que tem como objetivo principal a reivindicação de que a vida de humanos e animais seja igualmente protegida e considerada como inviolável. Ou seja, reivindica-se que assim como os humanos os animais também sejam sujeitos de direitos (Ana Paula Perrota).


Veganismo. Por uma outra relação com a vida no e do planeta - Revista IHU On-Line 532 - 18 Março 2019

Veganismo. Por uma outra relação com a vida no e do planeta - Revista IHU On-Line 532 - 18 Março 2019

O ex-Beatle Paul McCartney cunhou uma frase que se tornou célebre ao afirmar que, se os matadouros tivessem vidros em vez de paredes, as pessoas não comeriam carne. Muitos adeptos do veganismo acolhem essa como uma afirmação para indicar a violência que envolve os abates. Entretanto, ser vegano é mais do que não comer carne em razão da forma como os animais são mortos, é uma recusa a todo o sofrimento a que os animais são sujeitados não somente para a produção de comida, mas para qualquer bem de consumo. É também não humanizar os bichos, respeitando-os como parte de um projeto comum.

A revista IHU On-Line debate o tema nesta edição com especialistas de diversas áreas do conhecimento.

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Cada dia mais pessoas acreditam que os animais importam tanto como seres humanos

A ortopraxia supera a ortodoxia: Francisco, seis anos depois

O foco de Francisco na mensagem simples do Evangelho é bastante ameaçador para aqueles católicos que confundem teologia com fé. A teologia é o modo como explicamos a fé para nós e para os outros... Francisco está preocupado sobretudo com o modo como vivemos a fé, mais do que como a explicamos. A ortopraxia supera a ortodoxia.


Francisco, seis anos depois: que há de bom, de mau e de misericordioso. Artigo de Thomas Reese - IHU On-Line - 14 Março 2019

Há seis anos, no dia 13 de março, o Colégio dos Cardeais surpreendeu o mundo com a eleição do jesuíta argentino Jorge Bergoglio como papa. Assumindo o nome de Francisco, ele conquistou a admiração e o respeito de católicos e não católicos com sua simplicidade e preocupação com os pobres e marginalizados. A cada ano que passa, porém, as críticas ao papa se tornam mais expressivas, especialmente por parte da direita católica, que pensa que ele está rompendo com o ensino tradicional da Igreja, e da direita política, que não gosta das suas opiniões sobre o aquecimento global, a imigração e a justiça social. Francisco também tem sido incapaz de satisfazer aqueles que dizem que a resposta da hierarquia católica aos abusos sexuais do clero foi inadequada. Eu sou um grande fã de Francisco, em parte porque eu acho que qualquer avaliação dos seus primeiros seis anos como papa mostra que suas conquistas superam as suas falhas.

O comentário é do jesuíta estadunidense Thomas J. Reese, ex-editor-chefe da revista America, dos jesuítas dos Estados Unidos, de 1998 a 2005.


The good, the bad and the merciful: Pope Francis after six years - By  Thomas J. Reese - Religion News Service - March 12, 2019

Six years ago, on March 13, the College of Cardinals surprised the world with the election of the Argentine Jesuit Jorge Bergoglio as pope. Taking the name Francis, he won the admiration and respect of Catholics and non-Catholics alike with his simplicity and concern for the poor and marginalized. With each passing year, however, criticism of the pope has become more vocal, especially from the Catholic right, who think he is breaking with traditional church teaching, and the political right, who don’t like his views on global warming, immigration and social justice. Francis has also been unable to satisfy those who say the Catholic hierarchy’s response to the clergy sex abuse crisis has been inadequate. I am a big fan of Pope Francis, in part because I think that any evaluation of his first six years as pope shows that his accomplishments outweigh his failings.

Leia Mais:
Francisco no Observatório Bíblico

segunda-feira, 11 de março de 2019

Livro de Israel Finkelstein sobre Esdras, Neemias e Crônicas

FINKELSTEIN, I. Hasmonean Realities behind Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2018, 222 p. - ISBN 9780884143079.
FINKELSTEIN, I. Hasmonean Realities behind Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2018.
 
In this collection of essays, Israel Finkelstein deals with key topics in Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles, such as the list of returnees, the construction of the city wall of Jerusalem, the adversaries of Nehemiah, the tribal genealogies, and the territorial expansion of Judah in 2 Chronicles. Finkelstein argues that the geographical and historical realities cached behind at least parts of these books fit the Hasmonean period in the late second century BCE. Seven previously published essays are supplemented by maps, updates to the archaeological material, and references to recent publications on the topics.

Entre 2008 e 2015 Israel Finkelstein publicou 7 artigos nos quais abordou textos dos livros de Esdras, Neemias e 1 e 2 Crônicas. Estes textos falam da lista dos que voltaram do exílio babilônico, da construção das muralhas de Jerusalém, dos adversários de Neemias, das genealogias tribais e da expansão territorial de Judá. Finkelstein argumenta que a realidade geográfica e histórica que aparece em pelo menos parte desses livros aponta para a época dos Macabeus, no final do século II a.C. Reunidos neste livros, os sete ensaios são complementados por mapas, material arqueológico atualizado e referências a publicações recentes sobre os tópicos tratados.


Introduction
Over the last decade, I published seven articles concerning texts in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. They deal with the construction of Jerusalem’s city wall, described in Neh 3; the lists of returnees in Ezra 2:1–67 and Neh 7:6–68; the adversaries of Nehemiah; the genealogies in 1 Chr 2–9; the towns fortified by Rehoboam according to 2 Chr 11:5–12; and the unparallel accounts in 2 Chronicles that relate the expansion of Judah. An additional article gives an overview of the territorial extent of Yehud/Judea in the Persian and Hellenistic periods.


1. Jerusalem in the Persian (and Early Hellenistic) Period and the Wall of Nehemiah
Knowledge of the archaeology of Jerusalem in the Persian (and early Hellenistic) period—the size of the settlement and whether it was fortified—is crucial to understanding the history of the province of Yehud, the reality behind the book of Nehemiah, and the process of compilation and redaction of certain biblical texts. It is therefore essential to look at the finds free of preconceptions (which may stem from the account in the book of Nehemiah) and only then attempt to merge archaeology and text.


2. Archaeology and the List of Returnees in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
In the first chapter I questioned Neh 3’s description of the construction of the Jerusalem wall in the light of the archaeology of Jerusalem in the Persian period. The finds indicate that the settlement was small and poor. It covered an area of circa 2–2.5 hectares and was inhabited by four hundred–five hundred people. The archaeology of Jerusalem shows no evidence for construction of a wall in the Persian period or renovation of the ruined Iron II city wall. I concluded with three alternatives for understanding the discrepancy between the biblical text and the archaeological finds...


3. The Territorial Extent and Demography of Yehud/Judea in the Persian and Early Hellenistic Periods
The territorial extent of Persian-period Yehud and Hellenistic Judea and estimates of their population are major issues in current research, with far-reaching implications for dating the composition of several biblical works. Recent research on the Yehud seal impressions and my own work on geographical lists in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah raise new questions and call for a fresh treatment of both issues.


4. Nehemiah’s Adversaries
In chapters 1 and 2, I proposed to identify the geographical, archaeological, and historical realities behind the list of builders of the wall in Neh 3:1–32 and the list of returnees in Neh 7:6–68 (and Ezra 2:1–67) in Hasmonean times. Placing the Neh 3 list in the Hellenistic period should not affect the dating of the Nehemiah Memoir—the backbone of the book. Construction of the wall is a major theme in the Nehemiah Memoir. The reality behind it may be sought in work conducted on the original mound of Jerusalem, which was located on the Temple...


5. The Historical Reality behind the Genealogical Lists in 1 Chronicles
The genealogical lists of “the sons of Israel” in 1 Chr 2–9 have been the focus of intensive research from the beginning of modern biblical scholarship. Among other topics, research has centered on the origin of the lists, their purpose, their relationship to other parts of the books of Chronicles and their date. Most scholars agree that the genealogical lists form an independent block, a kind of introduction to history; opinions differ, however, on whether the lists belong to the work of the Chronicler or if they were added after the main substance of the book had already been...


6. Rehoboam’s Fortified Cities (2 Chr 11:5–12)
A list of cities ostensibly fortified by Rehoboam appears in 2 Chr 11:5–12, with no parallel in the book of Kings. Many scholars have dealt with this short account, in efforts to establish its date, geographical setting, and place in the Chronicler’s description of the reign of Rehoboam. Regarding chronology, researchers have suggested dating the list to the time of Rehoboam, as related in the text, or to a later date in the history of Judah: the days of Hezekiah or Josiah. Regarding the geographical background, scholars have attempted to understand the function of the towns mentioned in the...


7. The Expansion of Judah in 2 Chronicles
The land of Israel and territorial gains and losses are major themes in Chronicles. The period of David and Solomon is conceived as the ideal rule of Jerusalem over the entire area inhabited by the Hebrews. After the “division” of the monarchy, 2 Chronicles pays much attention to the gradual territorial growth of Judah, aimed at restoring Jerusalem’s rule over the entire land of Israel. This expansion—undertaken during the reign of a few monarchs—is described in several sections that do not appear in the books of Kings. Scholars have been divided on the historical reliability of these “unparallel”...


Conclusions
The geographical setting portrayed by the texts discussed in this book and the archaeology of the sites mentioned in them reflect realities in the second half of the second century BCE—in Hasmonean times. The literary genre of these materials and the ideology behind them also fit Hasmonean literature. The main conclusions of the seven chapters are as follows. Nehemiah’s Wall: There are no Persian or early Hellenistic fortifications in Jerusalem to fit the Neh 3 description of a city wall with numerous gates and towers surrounding a large city. Furthermore, the depleted population of Yehud could not have supported...

Israel Finkelstein

The original articles included in this book are listed below in the order in which they appear here:

“Jerusalem in the Persian (and Early Hellenistic) Period and the Wall of Nehemiah.” JSOT 32 (2008): 501–20.

“Archaeology of the List of Returnees in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah.” PEQ 140 (2008): 7–16.

“The Territorial Extent and Demography of Yehud/Judea in thePersian and Early Hellenistic Periods.” RB 117 (2010): 39–54.

“Nehemiah’s Adversaries: A Hasmonaean Reality?” Transeu 47(2015): 47–55.

“The Historical Reality behind the Genealogical Lists in 1 Chronicles.” JBL 131 (2012): 65–83.

“Rehoboam’s Fortified Cities (II Chr 11, 5–12): A Hasmonean Reality?” ZAW 123 (2011): 92–107.

“The Expansion of Judah in II Chronicles: Territorial Legitimation for the Hasmoneans?” ZAW 127 (2015): 669–95.


Israel Finkelstein trata do mesmo assunto em um seminário, em setembro de 2018, na Faculdade Teológica de Zurique, Suíça. Disponível em vídeo, com legendas em inglês:

Hasmonean Realities behind Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles? The Archeological Perspective - Seminar von Prof. Dr. Israel Finkelstein an der Theologischen Fakultät Zürich. 13. September 2018.

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Israel Finkelstein na Ayrton's Biblical Page e no Observatório Bíblico

segunda-feira, 4 de março de 2019

Seminário do PIB para professores de Bíblia 2019 em vídeo

Sobre o seminário, leia aqui.

Para os interessados na obra lucana - Evangelho de Lucas e Atos dos Apóstolos, uma dica: as palestras principais estão disponíveis em vídeo.

Na página do seminário estão os links para os vídeos no YouTube.

Há também uma galeria de fotos do seminário.

Seminário do PIB para professores de Bíblia: aula do Prof. Massimo Grilli - 21.01.2019

sexta-feira, 1 de março de 2019

Biblical Studies Carnival 156

Seleção de postagens dos biblioblogs em fevereiro de 2019.

Biblical Studies Carnival 156 (February 2019)

Trabalho feito por Bob MacDonald em seu blog Dust.

quinta-feira, 28 de fevereiro de 2019

Desmascarando a ideologia neoliberal na interpretação bíblica

O capítulo 6 do livro Luta de classes no Novo Testamento foi publicado pela revista online The Bible and Interpretation.

Fishing for Entrepreneurs in the Sea of Galilee? Unmasking Neoliberal Ideology in Biblical Interpretation - By Robert J. Myles, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

MYLES, R. J. (ed.) Class Struggle in the New Testament. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books/Fortress Academic, 2019.

Rather than emphasize the fishermen’s moral decision to follow Jesus and its associated economic cost, I implore we instead read these narratives as embedded within a broader context of widespread social upheaval and as gesturing towards unrest among the lower classes.

Em vez de enfatizar a decisão moral dos pescadores de seguir Jesus e seu custo econômico associado, sugiro que leiamos essas narrativas inseridas em um contexto mais amplo de agitação social generalizada e como gestos de insatisfação existente entre as classes mais baixas.

segunda-feira, 25 de fevereiro de 2019

Sobre a arqueologia da Palestina

Biblical Archaeology: The Study of Biblical Sites & Artifacts

By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor | February 22, 2019

While the definition of biblical archaeology varies from scholar to scholar, it generally includes some combination of archaeology and biblical studies (...) "Specifically, it is archaeology that sheds light on the stories, descriptions, and discussions in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament from the early second millennium [B.C.], the time of Abraham and the Patriarchs, through the Roman period in the early first millennium [A.D.]," Cline wrote in his book "Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction" (Oxford University Press, 2009). Some scholars extend the geographical area that biblical archaeology covers to include Egypt, Mesopotamia and Sudan (...)  Some archaeologists prefer not to use the phrase "biblical archaeology" out of concern that it sounds unscientific (continua).

sábado, 16 de fevereiro de 2019

Alexandre Magno foi morto pela síndrome de Guillain-Barré?

Até hoje há muitas dúvidas sobre a causa da morte de Alexandre Magno. Malária? Assassinato? Agora surge mais uma hipótese: a síndrome de Guillain-Barré.

Alexandre Magno (356-323 a.C.)

Why Alexander the Great May Have Been Declared Dead Prematurely (It's Pretty Gruesome)

By Owen Jarus - Live Science - February 4, 2019

Alexander the Great may have been killed by Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological condition in which a person's own immune system attacks them, says one medical researchers.

The condition may have led to a mistaken declaration of the king's death and may explain the mysterious phenomenon in which his body didn't decay for seven days after his "death."

Alexander the Great was king of Macedonia between 336 and 323 B.C. During that time, he conquered an empire that stretched from the Balkans to modern-day Pakistan. In June 323, he was living in Babylon when, after a brief illness that caused fever and paralysis, he died at age 32. His senior generals then fought each other to see who would succeed him. [Top 10 Reasons Alexander the Great Was, Well ... Great!]

According to accounts left by ancient historians, after a night of drinking, the king experienced a fever and gradually became less and less able to move until he could no longer speak. One account, told by Quintus Curtius Rufus, who lived during the first century A.D., claims that Alexander the Great's body didn't decay for more than seven days after he was declared dead, and the embalmers were hesitant to work on his body.

Ancient historians reported that many people believed that Alexander the Great was poisoned, possibly by someone working for Antipater, a senior official of Alexander's who was supposedly quarreling with the king. In 2014, a research team found that the medicinal plant white hellebore (Veratrum album) could have been used to poison Alexander.

Based on the symptoms recorded by ancient historians, Katherine Hall, a senior lecturer in the Department of General Practice and Rural Health at the University of Otago in New Zealand, believes that it's possible that Alexander actually died of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The condition, Hall said, may have left Alexander in a deep coma that may have led doctors to declare, mistakenly, that he was dead, something that would explain why his corpse supposedly didn't decompose quickly, noted Hall in her paper published recently in the journal Ancient History Bulletin (continua).


Sobre Alexandre Magno, clique aqui. Sobre a síndrome de Guillain-Barré, clique aqui.