segunda-feira, 29 de maio de 2017

A arqueologia e seu meio social em perspectiva histórica

TRIGGER, B. G. A History of Archaeological Thought. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 710 p. - ISBN 9780521600491.

TRIGGER, B. G. A History of Archaeological Thought

This work traces the history and context of archaeological research and practice around the world, and examines underlying ideas and values. The primary goal of this book is to survey the intellectual history of archaeology in an attempt to evaluate the claims of three alternative epistemologies that are currently being applied to archaeology. Positivist epistemologists maintain that society and culture exert no significant influence on the development of archaeology, which is shaped by explanations based on explicit theories being tested in the light of adequate evidence and according to proper scientific methods. Extreme relativists argue that the interpretation of archaeological data is so influenced by the intellectual persuasions, class interests, ethnic loyalties, gender prejudices, and personal self-interest of archaeologists that objectivity is impossible. There is no such thing as objective knowledge, and, therefore, no one truth but many possibly antithetical truths. Moderate relativists concede that archaeological interpretations are influenced by society, culture, and self-interest but maintain that archaeological evidence constrains speculation. Bruce Graham Trigger (1937– 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist.


TRIGGER, B. G. História do pensamento arqueológico. 2. ed. São Paulo: Odysseus, 2011, 630 p. -ISBN 9788578760175.

TRIGGER, B. G. História do pensamento arqueológico

Esse livro examina as relações entre a arqueologia e seu meio social em uma perspectiva histórica. Um tal enfoque possibilita uma visão comparativa a partir da qual problemas relativos a subjetividade, objetividade e acumulação gradual de conhecimento podem ser apreciados.

A arqueologia é uma ciência social no sentido de que ela procura explicar o que aconteceu a um grupo específico de seres humanos no passado e fazer generalizações a respeito do processo de mudança cultural. Porém, ao contrário dos etnólogos, dos geógrafos, dos sociólogos, dos cientistas políticos e dos economistas, os arqueólogos não podem observar o comportamento da população que eles estudam; ao contrário dos historiadores, também não têm, na maioria dos casos, acesso direto ao pensamento dessa gente registrado em textos escritos. A arqueologia infere comportamento humano, e também ideias, a partir de materiais remanescentes do que pessoas fizeram e usaram, e do impacto físico de sua presença no meio ambiente. A interpretação de dados arqueológicos depende da compreensão de como seres humanos se comportam no presente e, em particular, de como esse comportamento se reflete na cultura material. Os arqueólogos também têm de recorrer a princípios uniformitaristas para que possam valer-se do entendimento de processos biológicos e geológicos contemporâneos na inferência de como tais processos ajudaram a configurar o registro arqueológico. No entanto, eles estão longe de chegar a um acordo a respeito de como esses saberes podem ser legítima e compreensivamente aplicados aos seus dados a fim de tornar inteligível o comportamento humano passado.

É talvez decepcionantemente fácil mostrar que, no mundo inteiro, a interpretação da evidência arqueológica é influenciada por condições políticas, sociais e econômicas, assim como pela tendência de indivíduos e grupos a afirmar seus interesses apresentando objetivos egoístas como se fossem altruístas. Além do mais, interpretações arqueológicas são diretamente influenciadas por preconceitos de gênero, por interesses étnicos, pelo controle político da pesquisa e da publicação, pelo financiamento das atividades arqueológicas, por conflitos de geração entre os pesquisadores e por influências idiossincráticas de arqueólogos carismáticos. São também influenciadas pela sociedade indiretamente, através de modelos analíticos oferecidos pelas ciências físicas e biológicas e, em maior medida, pelas ciências sociais, assim como pela continuidade da aceitação de explicações arqueológicas estabelecidas cujo caráter obsoleto não se tornou evidente.

No entanto, apenas muito raramente são encontradas correspondências simples entre as interpretações arqueológicas e as condições sociais. Essas interpretações não constituem, na maioria, reflexo direto de tais condições, antes vêm a ser versões do passado criadas por arqueólogos que tentam, em circunstâncias históricas particulares, promover, ou defender, interesses e preferências sociais. Esses interesses variam e podem ser apoiados de diferentes maneiras.

Bruce Graham Trigger (1937– 2006), arqueólogo canadense

Bruce Graham Trigger (1937– 2006) foi um arqueólogo canadense.

Teoria e método em arqueologia

RENFREW, C. ; BAHN, P. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. 7. ed. London: Thames & Hudson, 2016, 672 p. - ISBN 9780500292105.

RENFREW, C. ; BAHN, P. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice

This new edition is the most comprehensive introduction to archaeological method and theory available. It is used by instructors and students for introductory courses on methods and theory, but also for classes on archaeological field methods, archaeological science, and a number of other courses. The book presents an up-to-date and accurate overview of the world of archaeology in the 21st century. Colin Renfrew is Disney Professor Emeritus of Archaeology and former Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at the University of Cambridge, UK. Paul Bahn is a freelance writer, translator, and broadcaster in archaeology.

Uma abrangente introdução à teoria e ao método arqueológico. O livro apresenta uma visão atualizada e precisa do mundo da arqueologia no século XXI. É considerado um clássico na área.

Colin Renfrew


Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia

As principais correntes teóricas da arqueologia

JOHNSON, M. Archaeological Theory: An Introduction. 2. ed. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2010, 328 p. - ISBN 9781405100151.

JOHNSON, M. Archaeological Theory: An Introduction


This book is an introductory essay on archaeological theory [the application of philosophy of science to archaeology]. It tries to explain something of what ‘theory’ is, its relationship to archaeological practice, how it has developed within archaeology over the last few decades, and how archaeological thought relates to theory in the human sciences and the intellectual world generally. Exploring the many ways of approaching the human past, from positivism to post-modernism, Johnson reveals the historical origins of different schools of thought and sets theories against the practical problems they are intended to solve, as well as against wider developments in other disciplines. Matthew H. Johnson is Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Northwestern University, USA.

Este livro traz um panorama das principais correntes teóricas da arqueologia. Explica o que é "teoria", sua relação com a prática arqueológica e como ela se desenvolveu dentro da arqueologia nas últimas décadas.

 Matthew H. Johnson


Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia

domingo, 28 de maio de 2017

Um relato do estado atual da teoria arqueológica

HODDER, I. (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today. 2 ed. Cambridge: Polity, 2012, 320 p. - ISBN 9780745653068. 

HODDER, I. (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today

This volume provides an authoritative account of the current status of archaeological theory, as presented by some of its major exponents and innovators over recent decades. It summarizes the latest developments in the field and looks to its future, exploring some of the cutting–edge ideas at the forefront of the discipline. The volume captures the diversity of contemporary archaeological theory. Some authors argue for an approach close to the natural sciences, others for an engagement with cultural debate about representation of the past. Some minimize the relevance of culture to societal change, while others see it as central; some focus on the contingent and the local, others on long–term evolution. While few practitioners in theoretical archaeology would today argue for a unified disciplinary approach, the authors in this volume increasingly see links and convergences between their perspectives. The volume also reflects archaeology′s new openness to external influences, as well as the desire to contribute to wider debates. The contributors examine ways in which archaeological evidence contributes to theories of evolutionary psychology, as well as to the social sciences in general, where theories of social relationships, agency, landscape and identity are informed by the long–term perspective of archaeology. Ian Hodder  (born 1948) is a British archaeologist.  Dunlevie Family Professor of Anthropology at Stanford University, USA.

Este volume fornece um relato competente do estado atual da teoria arqueológica, como apresentado por alguns de seus principais expoentes e inovadores nas últimas décadas.

Ian Hodder

Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia
Sugestões de livros para iniciar os estudos em Arqueologia

Uma breve introdução à arqueologia

FAGAN, B. M. ; DURRANI, N. Archaeology: A Brief Introduction. 12. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 424 p. – ISBN  9781138190313.

FAGAN, B. M. ; DURRANI, N. Archaeology: A Brief Introduction

Archaeology is a jargon-free and accessible introduction to the field which details how archaeologists study the human past in all its fascinating diversity. Now in its twelfth edition, this classic textbook has been updated to reflect the latest research and new findings in the field. Reflecting the global scope of the discipline, the book has a truly international coverage of important discoveries and sites from many corners of the globe. Individual chapters examine archaeology and its history, considering the role of the archaeologist and how they discover, investigate and classify sites and artifacts. This journey through archaeology also includes a discussion of important individuals and groups, and some of the ways in which archaeologists attempt to explain major social and cultural changes in the remote past. Archaeology ends with an outline of the complex world of cultural resource management and gives invaluable advice on how to become an archaeologist. Richly illustrated throughout, this popular and engaging textbook on archaeological methods has introduced generations of students to the captivating world of archaeology.

Este é um clássico, já na 12ª edição.  Veja também o post anterior.


Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia

Uma breve história da arqueologia

FAGAN, B. M. ; DURRANI, N. A Brief History of Archaeology: Classical Times to the Twenty-First Century. 2. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 302 p. – ISBN 9781138657076.

FAGAN, B. M. ; DURRANI, N. A Brief History of Archaeology: Classical Times to the Twenty-First Century


This short account of the discipline of archaeology tells of spectacular discoveries and the colorful lives of the archaeologists who made them, as well as of changing theories and current debates in the field. Spanning over two thousand years of history, the book details early digs as well as covering the development of archaeology as a multidisciplinary science, the modernization of meticulous excavation methods during the twentieth century, and the important discoveries that led to new ideas about the evolution of human societies. Brian Murray Fagan (born 1936) is a British prolific author of popular archaeology books and a professor emeritus of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA. Nadia Durrani is a Cambridge University-trained archaeologist and writer, with a PhD from University College, London, in Arabian archaeology. She is former editor of Britain’s best-selling archaeology magazine, Current World Archaeology and has authored and edited many articles and books on archaeology from every corner of the globe.

 Brian Murray Fagan

Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia

Introdução à história da arqueologia

CLINE, E. H. Three Stones Make a Wall: The Story of Archaeology.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, 480 p. - ISBN 9780691166407.

CLINE, E. H. Three Stones Make a Wall: The Story of Archaeology, 2017

Written by Eric Cline, an archaeologist with more than thirty seasons of excavation experience, Three Stones Make a Wall traces the history of archaeology from an amateur pursuit to the cutting-edge science it is today by taking the reader on a tour of major archaeological sites and discoveries, from Pompeii to Petra, Troy to the Terracotta Warriors, and Mycenae to Megiddo and Masada. Cline brings to life the personalities behind these digs, including Heinrich Schliemann, the former businessman who excavated Troy, and Mary Leakey, whose discoveries advanced our understanding of human origins. The discovery of the peoples and civilizations of the past is presented in vivid detail, from the Hittites and Minoans to the Inca, Aztec, and Moche. Along the way, the book addresses the questions archaeologists are asked most often: How do you know where to dig? How are excavations actually done? How do you know how old something is? Who gets to keep what is found? Eric H. Cline (born 1960) is Professor of Classics and Anthropology and Director of the Capitol Archaeological Institute at George Washington University, USA.  Cf. Escavando Meguido.

Eric H. Cline

Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia
Sugestões de livros para iniciar os estudos em Arqueologia

sábado, 27 de maio de 2017

O que é a arqueologia?

BAHN, P. Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. 2. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 136 p. - ISBN  9780199657438.

BAHN, P. Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction

This entertaining Very Short Introduction reflects the enduring popularity of archaeology - a subject which appeals as a pastime, career, and academic discipline, encompasses the whole globe, and surveys 2.5 million years. From deserts to jungles, from deep caves to mountain tops, from pebble tools to satellite photographs, from excavation to abstract theory, archaeology interacts with nearly every other discipline in its attempts to reconstruct the past. In this new edition, Paul Bahn brings the text up to date, including information about new discoveries and interpretations in the field, and highlighting the impact of developments such as the potential use of DNA and stable isotopes in teeth, as well the effect technology and science are having on archaeological exploration. Paul Bahn is a freelance writer, translator, and broadcaster in archaeology.

Este livro é uma boa introdução para quem quer saber um pouco mais sobre o assunto, mesmo que não tenha interesse em estudar arqueologia.

Paul Bahn

Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia
Sugestões de livros para iniciar os estudos em Arqueologia

O básico da arqueologia

GAMBLE, C. Archaeology: The Basics. 3. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, 306 p. - ISBN 9780415694834.

GAMBLE, C. Archaeology: The Basics. 3. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015

This book answers key questions about how and why we practice archaeology and examines the theories and themes underpinning the subject. Fully updated, this new edition includes a wide range of examples and new material on key growth areas including evolutionary approaches in current archaeology, the archaeology of landscape and place, the impact and value of archaeology, conflict archaeology and the politics of the past. This text is essential reading for all those beginning to study archaeology and anyone who has ever questioned the past. Clive Gamble (born 1951) is a Professor of Archaeology at University of Southampton, UK.

Este livro responde a perguntas-chave sobre como e por que praticamos a arqueologia e examina as teorias e os temas subjacentes ao assunto. Indicado para iniciantes.

Professor Clive Gamble
 
Sumário

What is archaeology?

How many archaeologies are there?

Basic concepts

People

Objects

Time and space

Change and stasis

Identity and power

Leia Mais:
Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia
Sugestões de livros para iniciar os estudos em Arqueologia

Histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia

O primeiro número de 2018 da revista Estudos Bíblicos está sendo preparado pelos Biblistas Mineiros. Terá por tema o fundamentalismo, analisando textos de Gn 1-11 e do livro do Apocalipse. Devem ser elaborados uns 11 artigos por alguns de nós. O meu artigo será sobre as Histórias de criação e dilúvio na antiga Mesopotâmia. Por isso estou lendo ou consultando alguns textos sobre cosmogonias e outras histórias do Antigo Oriente Médio.

Publico neste post o que li recentemente sobre o tema, dividindo a bibliografia em quatro seções: arqueologia, Antigo Oriente Médio, cosmogonias mesopotâmicas e outras histórias e recursos online. Nos posts seguintes detalharei um pouco mais cada obra.  E acrescentarei aqui, nos próximos meses, outros livros que ainda devo ler.

Observo que a bibliografia está quase toda em inglês. Os recursos em português sobre os textos literários do Antigo Oriente Médio são muito limitados e alguns estão desatualizados. Umas tantas obras podem ser encontradas em espanhol.

Sobre a terminologia, gostaria de observar que o termo usual em inglês para designar a região é Ancient Near East ou Antigo Oriente Próximo. O mesmo ocorre com o italiano, Vicino Oriente antico e o francês, Proche-Orient ancien. Já em alemão o usual é Der Alte Orient, O Antigo Oriente.  

"Antigo Oriente Próximo", entretanto, não faz muito sentido para nós, pois o conceito é eurocêntrico, já que a Europa está realmente "próxima" do Oriente. Nós não estamos. Por isso prefiro falar aqui de Antigo Oriente Médio. Reconheço, entretanto, que "Oriente Médio", entre nós, é mais empregado nos contextos políticos e jornalísticos, enquanto "Oriente Próximo" é mais utilizado em contextos arqueológicos, geográficos e históricos.

Esclareço ainda que meu conhecimento sobre o Antigo Oriente Médio é limitado, pois sou um biblista e não um assiriologista.


Sobre a arqueologia

BAHN, P. Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. 2. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 136 p. - ISBN  9780199657438.

CLINE, E. H. Three Stones Make a Wall: The Story of Archaeology.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, 480 p. - ISBN 9780691166407.

FAGAN, B. M. ; DURRANI, N. A Brief History of Archaeology: Classical Times to the Twenty-First Century. 2. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 302 p. – ISBN 9781138657076.

FAGAN, B. M. ; DURRANI, N. Archaeology: A Brief Introduction. 12. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 424 p. – ISBN  9781138190313.


GAMBLE, C. Archaeology: The Basics. 3. ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, 306 p. - ISBN 9780415694834.

HODDER, I. (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today. 2 ed. Cambridge: Polity, 2012, 320 p. - ISBN 9780745653068.

JOHNSON, M. Archaeological Theory: An Introduction. 2. ed. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2010, 328 p. - ISBN 9781405100151. 

RENFREW, C. ; BAHN, P. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. 7. ed. London: Thames & Hudson, 2016, 672 p. - ISBN 9780500292105.

TRIGGER, B. G. A History of Archaeological Thought. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 710 p. - ISBN 9780521600491.

TRIGGER, B. G. História do pensamento arqueológico. 2. ed. São Paulo: Odysseus, 2011, 630 p. - ISBN 9788578760175.

WEEKS, J. M. ; DE MEDEIROS, J. A Research Guide to the Ancient World: Print and Electronic Sources. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, 456 p. - ISBN 9781442237391.


Sobre o Antigo Oriente Médio

BLACK, J. ; GEORGE, A. ; POSTGATE, N. (eds.) A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. 2. ed. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000, 474 p. - ISBN 9783447042253.

BLACK, J. ; GREEN, A. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Illustrations by Tessa Rickards. Austin: University of Texas Press, [1992] 2016, 192 p. - ISBN 9780292707948.

CRAWFORD, H. E. W. Sumer and the Sumerians. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, 264 p. - ISBN 9780521533386.

EDZARD, D. O. Sumerian Grammar. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003, 191 p. - ISBN  9781589832527.

HUEHNERGARD, J. A Grammar of Akkadian. 3. ed. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011, XLII + 660 p. - ISBN 9781575069418.

LIVERANI, M. Antigo Oriente: História, Sociedade e Economia. São Paulo: EDUSP, 2016, 832 p. - ISBN 9788531415685.

LIVERANI, M. Antico Oriente: Storia, società, economia. 4. ed. Bari: Laterza, 2011, 899 p. - ISBN 9788842095880.

LIVERANI, M. Assiria: La preistoria dell'imperialismo. Bari: Laterza, 2017, 402 p. - ISBN 9788858126684.

LIVERANI, M. Imagining Babylon: The Modern Story of an Ancient City. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2016, 488 p. - ISBN 9781614516026.

LIVERANI, M. Immaginare Babele. Due secoli di studi sulla città orientale antica. Bari: Laterza, 2013, 530 p. - ISBN 9788858106518.

MALLEY, S. Layard enterprise: victorian archaeology and informal imperialism in Mesopotamia. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Cambridge, 40(4), p. 623-646, 2008.

MANNING, S. W.  et alii Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology.  PLOS ONE 11(7): e0157144. Published: July 13, 2016.

PODANY, A. H. The Ancient Near East: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 148 p. - ISBN 9780195377996.

POLLOCK, S. ; BERBECK, R.  (eds.) Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005, 384 p. - ISBN 9780631230014.

PONGRATZ-LEISTEN, B. Religion and Ideology in Assyria. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2015, 553 p. - ISBN 9781614514824.

POTTS, D. T.  (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 2 vols. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 1500 p. - ISBN 9781405189880.

RADNER, K. ; ROBSON, E. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 805 p. - ISBN 9780199557301.

ROTH, M. T. (ed.) The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD). Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1956-2010.

SNELL, D. C. Ancient Near East: The Basics. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014, 178 p. - ISBN  9780415656986.

SNELL, D. C. (ed.) A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005, 528 p. - ISBN 9780631232933.

VAN DE MIEROOP, M. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000–323 BC. 3. ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, 424 p. - ISBN  9781118718162.


Sobre as cosmogonias mesopotâmicas e outras histórias

ABUSCH, T. Male and Female in the Epic of Gilgamesh: Encounters, Literary History, and Interpretation. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015, IX + 236 p. - ISBN 9781575063492.

BLACK, J. et alii The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, 438 p. - ISBN 9780199296330.

BOTTÉRO, J. ; KRAMER, S. N. Lorsque les dieux faisaient l'homme: Mythologie Mésopotamienne. Paris: Gallimard, 1993, 755 p. - ISBN 9782070713820.

BRANDÃO, J. L. Como se faz um herói: as linhas de força do poema de Gilgámesh. E-Hum, Belo Horizonte, v. 8, n. 1, p. 104-121, 2015.

BRANDÃO, J. L. No princípio era a água. Rev. UFMG, Belo Horizonte, v. 20, n. 2, p. 22-41, 2013. 

BRANDÃO, J. L. Sîn-lēqi-unninni, Ele o abismo viu (Série de Gilgámesh 1). Nuntius Antiquus, Belo Horizonte, v. X, n. 2, jul.-dez., p. 125-159, 2014.

CLIFFORD, R. J. Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible. Washington: The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1994, XIII + 217 p. - ISBN 9780915170258.

CLIFFORD, R. J. (ed.) Wisdom Literature in Mesopotamia and Israel. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007, 132 p. - ISBN 9781589832190. Download gratuito.

DALLEY, S. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, 339 p. - ISBN 9780199538362.

FLEMING, D. E. ; MILSTEIN, S. J. The Buried Foundation of the Gilgamesh Epic: The Akkadian Huwawa Narrative. [Leiden: Brill, 2010] Atlanta: SBL Press, 2014, XX + 227 p. - ISBN 9781628370324

FOSTER, B. R. Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature. 3. ed. Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 2005, XX + 1025 p. - ISBN 9781883053765

GADOTTI, A. ‘Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld’ and the Sumerian Gilgamesh Cycle. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter, 2014, XV + 357 p. - ISBN 9781614517085.

GEORGE, A. R. The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, 1184 p. - ISBN 9780198149224.

GEORGE, A. R. The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian. Rev. ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2016, 304 p. - ISBN 9780140449198.

HALLO, W. W. ; YOUNGER, K. L. (eds.) The Context of Scripture: Canonical Compositions, Monumental Inscriptions and Archival Documents from the Biblical World.  3 vols. Leiden: Brill, 2003, 1553 p. - ISBN 9789047402275.

LAMBERT, W. G. Babylonian Creation Myths. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2013, XVI + 640 p. - ISBN 9781575062471.

PRITCHARD, J. B. (ed.) Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET). 3. ed. with Supplement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969.

TALON, Ph. The Standard Babylonian Creation Myth Enuma Elish. Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2005, 140 p. - ISBN  9789521013287.

TIGAY, J. H. The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci, 2002, 384 p. - ISBN 9780865165465.


Alguns recursos online

BDTNS - Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts

CDLI - Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative

CDLI:wiki

ETCSL - The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

KeiBi - Keilschriftbibliographie

Oracc - The Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus

domingo, 21 de maio de 2017

Línguas do Antigo Oriente Médio: uma bibliografia comentada

Uma interessante bibliografia comentada sobre as línguas do Antigo Oriente Médio.

Languages of the Ancient Near East: An Annotated Bibliography

John Huehnergard and Na’ama Pat-El, The University of Texas at Austin

Academia.edu - October, 2012

John Huehnergard


Na’ama Pat-El
Introduction

Writing began in the Near East, almost simultaneously in ancient Sumer in Mesopotamia and in Egypt in the late fourth millennium, and the texts of those societies constitute humanity’s earliest written records. The languages covered in this bibliography span the period from the beginning of writing up to the creation of the biblical canon around the first century CE. Most of these languages are extinct, although a few, such as Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic continue to be spoken in parts of the modern Middle East. The languages are grouped according to language family, beginning with the most widely attested of the families, Afro-Asiatic, and its two ancient branches, the Semitic languages and Egyptian; these are followed by the Indo-European languages for which there is documentation in the ancient Near East; finally a few well-attested ancient languages that are not part of any known language family are presented. Some of the  languages are very well attested; there are, for example, about a million cuneiform tablets in the Sumerian and Akkadian languages, in a wide range of genres. Other languages, such as Phoenician, are more sparsely attested, their grammar and vocabulary correspondingly less well known.

quinta-feira, 11 de maio de 2017

Como a arqueologia revoluciona nossa compreensão da Bíblia

FIENSY, D. A. Insights from Archaeology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2017, 160 p. - ISBN 9781506400143 
 
FIENSY, D. A. Insights from Archaeology, 2017

Archaeological exploration of Syria-Palestine and the ancient Near East has revolutionized our understanding of the Bible. David A. Fiensy describes how key archaeological discoveries have opened up new understandings of Israels own history and religion as well as the ancient Near Eastern and later Greco-Roman environments. He discusses the impact these discoveries have had on biblical studies, theology, and the task of biblical interpretation. The challenges for the future of archaeology and biblical study will be explored. Part of the series, Reading the Bible in the 21st Century: Insights.

A exploração arqueológica da Síria-Palestina e do Antigo Oriente Médio revolucionou nossa compreensão da Bíblia. David A. Fiensy descreve como descobertas arqueológicas importantes possibilitaram novas compreensões da história e da religião de Israel, bem como do mundo greco-romano e do Antigo Oriente Médio. Ele discute o impacto dessas descobertas sobre os estudos bíblicos e a teologia. Os desafios para o futuro da arqueologia e dos estudos bíblicos serão explorados. O livro faz parte da série, Reading the Bible in the 21st Century: Insights.



Sobre isso, leia o artigo de David A. Fiensy em The Bible and Interpretation, publicado em abril de 2017:

What Do Old, Dirty, Broken Pieces Of Pottery Have To Do With The Bible?


Onde ele diz, entre outras coisas:

... archaeology can be exciting if the excitement is about the people whose lives we come to know through the remains. If you expect to see your picture in the New York Times standing with a serious and scholarly expression on your face, surrounded by smiling “locals,” while you modestly point toward your sensational discovery under the screaming headlines: “HOW I FOUND THE ARK OF THE COVENANT!”—you may want to explore another career or at least another venue for your career. That will almost never happen in Israel.

If, however, meeting ancient folk through “their stuff” excites you, you might want to consider archaeology as a career or hobby. If you can hold a broken cooking pot, reflect on the ancient hands that fashioned it from wet clay, imagine the persons that handled the pot repeatedly to cook meals, and finally picture in your mind’s eye the many hands—large and small—that dipped into the pot to eat, then you will love archaeology. The artifacts tell us about the people who used them. That is where the “excitement” lies.

This is what my new book, Insights from Archaeology, is about (Fortress Press, due out in August of this year). It is about what life was like for the common person in both the Old Testament and New Testament periods. These are the persons who wrote nothing. They never visited the royal palace, never conquered foreign foes, and did not leave behind monumental landmarks. So, how did they live? What was their daily life like? What sort of houses did they inhabit? How did they interact with one another in community? Were they happy?

Some of these questions (“Were they happy?”) cannot be answered, at least not by archaeology. One can only guess. But we can make inroads into answering the others. We will in this monograph use not just archaeology and the biblical text but cultural anthropology as well. Answering some of these questions may not be as sensational for some readers as were the previous generations’ archaeological finds, but the answers get us to the real-life situations for most people of the ancient Israelite world, the world of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament.

sábado, 6 de maio de 2017

Estudos sobre a Septuaginta em 2016

Uma lista de livros sobre a LXX publicados em 2016.

Feita por James K. Aitken, professor de Hebraico, Antigo Testamento e Estudos da Época do Segundo Templo na Universidade de Cambridge, Reino Unido. Um reconhecido especialista em LXX.

Jim Aitken’s Reading List for LXX Studies

Por Jim West, em Zwinglius Redivivus - 3 de maio de 2017


Leia Mais:
LXX Scholar Interview: Dr. James K. Aitken

segunda-feira, 1 de maio de 2017

Humanities Commons

A Modern Language Association lançou Humanities Commons, uma rede de acesso aberto e sem fins lucrativos que fornece a acadêmicos da área de Ciências Humanas uma ferramenta de compartilhamento de sua produção.
Humanities Commons
Diz o site:

"Humanities Commons is a trusted, nonprofit network where humanities scholars can create a professional profile, discuss common interests, develop new publications, and share their work. The Humanities Commons network is open to anyone.

Humanities Commons is a project of the office of scholarly communication at the Modern Language Association. Its development was generously funded by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Humanities Commons is based on the open-source Commons-in-a-Box project of the City University of New York and the CUNY Graduate Center and is an expansion of the MLA’s MLA Commons, which launched in January 2013. The founding partner societies of Humanities Commons are the Association for Jewish Studies; the Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies; and the College Art Association. Each society has its own Commons hub.

Humanities Commons was designed by scholarly societies in the humanities to serve the needs of humanists as they engage in teaching and research that benefit the larger community. Unlike other social and academic communities, Humanities Commons is open-access, open-source, and nonprofit. It is focused on providing a space to discuss, share, and store cutting-edge research and innovative pedagogy—not on generating profits from users’ intellectual and personal data".


Diz AWOL:

With the increasing commercialization of Academia.edu and with the chaotic nature of institutional repositories several scholarly societies have collaborated to develop Humanities Commons.

Biblical Studies Carnival 134

Seleção de postagens dos biblioblogs em abril de 2017.

Biblical Studies Carnival, April 2017 – With a Hint of Theology and Philosophy

Trabalho feito por Joshua em seu blog Theologians, Inc.