quarta-feira, 5 de agosto de 2015

O Pai Nosso trata da fome, do endividamento, da opressão

A atuação de Jesus foi intensamente política. O Pai Nosso, a Oração do Senhor, fala, no seu contexto original, da opressão, do endividamento, da fome, da insegurança social. Jesus pregava o perdão das dívidas na sociedade palestina do século primeiro. Por isso foi preso e crucificado.

Quem diz isso?

OAKMAN, D. E. Jesus, Debt, and the Lord's Prayer: First-Century Debt and Jesus' Intentions.  Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2014, xx + 144 p.  - ISBN 9781498222518.


The Lord's Prayer in Social Perspective, o terceiro capítulo deste livro, foi publicado pela primeira vez em CHILTON, B.; EVANS, C. E. (eds.) Authenticating the Words of Jesus. Leiden: Brill, 1999, p. 137-186. O texto pode ser lido aqui.


Certa vez mencionei, em um artigo, os estudos de Douglas E. Oakman sobre o Pai Nosso:

Douglas E. Oakman, em um estudo sobre as condições de vida dos camponeses palestinos da época de Jesus, mostra que a violência que sofriam era brutal. Fraudes, roubos, trabalhos forçados, endividamento, perda da terra através da manipulação das dívidas atingiam a muitos. Existia uma violência epidêmica na Palestina.

E é neste contexto que Oakman propõe uma leitura radical do Pai Nosso. “Ele sugere” - diz R. L. Rohrbaugh - “que o pedido ‘perdoa-nos as nossas dívidas’ (Mt 6,12) refere-se aos processos nos quais os camponeses perdiam sua terra para os credores urbanos que sistematicamente exploravam as condições econômicas precárias em que viviam.

Além disso, argumenta Oakman, a prece final (Mt 6,13) ‘não nos ponha em teste’ - normalmente traduzida com a ideia anacrônica de não cair em tentação - é o apelo do camponês para que não seja levado a um tribunal de cobrança de dívidas e colocado diante de um juiz corrupto (‘mas livra-nos do Maligno’) cujo veredicto daria à expropriação de sua terra força de lei” (ROHRBAUGH, R. L. (ed.) The Social Sciences and New Testament Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003, p. 6).


Na avaliação de Philip F. Esler, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire UK:

While the Lord's Prayer is foundational for Christian belief and identity, no other scholar has done more in recent decades than Douglas Oakman to explore its original meaning in the context of Jesus's life and ministry. With Oakman's incisive and wide-ranging understanding of the first-century Palestinian world, that meaning comes to life in this volume as the inspiring and hope-filled expression of someone deeply and compassionately invested in the plight of the poor... Oakman brings the Lord's Prayer to life for our world.


Da resenha de David A. Fiensy, publicada na RBL em 16.07.2015:

Since the author’s first publication of his essay “Jesus and Agrarian Palestine: The Factor of Debt” (Society of Biblical Literature 1985 Seminar Papers), his thesis of widespread indebtedness in the Galilee of Jesus’s time has been resonating in scholarly circles. Later Oakman added presentations on the Lord’s Prayer and on Jesus as a tax resister. These three essays are now collected here along with an introduction and brief conclusion to form his current offering.

Oakman’s thesis is that Jesus wanted debt forgiveness in first-century Palestinian society. Jesus had an explicitly “subversive revolutionary agenda” (41) that “attracted a following of people victimized by debt” (41). In addition, developing this theme further, Oakman maintains that Jesus was a tax resister who tried to alleviate indebtedness by avoiding payment of taxes and by distortion of the tax records (100). He compares Jesus with Judas of Gamla, both of whom were tax resisters (61, 101). Jesus was a political revolutionary, albeit not a violent one (117). Jesus’s ministry/activity was political and not about “religion or theology” (117). The  Lord’s Prayer was originally about “oppression, indebtedness, hunger, and social insecurity” (90).

Jesus advocated tax resistance as the “concrete expression of the kingdom of God” (94) and that, because of his tax resistance, Jesus was crucified.


Quem é Douglas E. Oakman?

Douglas E. Oakman has been with the faculty of Pacific Lutheran University since 1988. Prior to that he taught at Santa Clara University, the University of San Francisco, and San Francisco Theological Seminary. He was chair of the Religion Department from 1996-2003 and Dean of Humanities from 2004-2010.

Oakman has published numerous articles applying the social sciences to biblical studies. He is the author of Jesus and the Economic Questions of His Day (1986), with K. C. Hanson the award-winning Palestine in the Time of Jesus (second edition, 2008), Jesus and the Peasants (Cascade Books, 2008), The Political Aims of Jesus (2012), and Jesus, Debt, and the Lord's Prayer (Cascade Books, 2014).

Nenhum comentário:

Postar um comentário