sábado, 30 de abril de 2011

Norman K Gottwald por Roland Boer

Será que existe alguém aqui no Brasil que lida com Bíblia Hebraica / Antigo Testamento e/ou com História de Israel que ainda não conhece Norman K Gottwald? E sua teoria da revolta camponesa ou da retribalização, para explicar as origens de Israel? E que nunca tropeçou em seu "tijolaço" de quase mil páginas chamado The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1979 [2. ed. 1999], em português: As Tribos de Iahweh: Uma Sociologia da Religião de Israel Liberto, 1250-1050 a.C. 2. ed. São Paulo: Paulus, 2004 [1. ed. 1986]?

Roland Boer, Professor no Departamento de Teologia da Universidade Newcastle, Austrália, autor do blog Stalin's Moustache, publicou ontem, 29/04/2011, na Monthly Review, o artigo:

Norman Gottwald: A Pioneering Marxist Biblical Scholar

Assim começa o artigo:
Norman Gottwald belongs to a rare breed -- an American Marxist biblical scholar. More than one jarring juxtaposition in that epithet! Unfortunately, he is less well known outside the relative small circle of biblical scholars than he should be. In order to introduce him to a wider audience, let me say a little about his scholarly achievements and then some more concerning his activism.

Ou seja: para que Gottwald possa ser conhecido por um público mais amplo, para além do limitado círculo dos estudiosos de Bíblia, Roland Boer vai apresentar seu trabalho acadêmico, pioneiro em suas propostas, e seu engajamento político, consistente com suas pesquisas e sua visão de mundo. E isto sob a ótica do marxismo.

Destaco três pequenos trechos do artigo:
:: "In contrast to the flowering of Marxist approaches to the Bible today, Gottwald first began work in the 1950s, when the US academy was largely hostile to such approaches. After a few relatively conventional starts -- an introduction to the Bible and a study of the biblical book of lamentations -- Gottwald set his mind to a comprehensive study of the origins of ancient Israel. The result, after more than a decade of work, was The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel 1250-1050 B.C.E., first published in 1979 and reprinted many times after that. The content of the argument was as controversial as its method. Gottwald argued that early Israel arose out of a peasant revolution within Canaan between 1250 and 1050 BCE" (...)

:: "The lasting heritage of Gottwald's work falls into three categories. First, the argument that Israel was indigenous to Canaan is now widely agreed among scholars. They may not have been conscious of being 'Israel' until quite late (after 400 BCE), but their economic, social and religious shape is distinctly Canaanite. Second, Gottwald almost single-handedly established social-scientific research on the Bible as a viable and promising enterprise. Social-scientific theory, comparative work and sophisticated sociological analysis is now well accepted and widely used. Third, Gottwald showed how productive Marxist methodology can be. He may have deployed Durkheim and Weber, but the core method is Marxist. So we find complex treatments of mode of production, means and relations of production, ideology and culture" (...)

:: "There is another, even lesser-known side to Gottwald, the long-time activist. Gottwald is at pains to point out that the various phases of his scholarship are inseparable from his experiences of activism of more than half a century. He is one of the few remaining radical biblical scholars who was immersed the heady excitement of the 1960s" (...) "Gottwald saw the importance of Marx for both his scholarly and political work".

Lembro ainda que Roland Boer coordenou um painel em Congresso Anual da SBL (Society of Biblical Literature, USA), que foi publicado em livro com o título Tracking "The Tribes of Yahweh": On the Trail of a Classic. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002, 216 p. - ISBN: 082646050X, no qual foi feito um balanço de "As Tribos de Iahweh", 20 anos após sua publicação, avaliando seus impactos e implicações nos estudos bíblicos. Contribuiram para esta avaliação David Jobling, Frank Frick, Charles Carter, Carol Meyers, Jacques Berlinerblau, Itumeleng Mosala, Gerald West, Roland Boer e o próprio Norman Gottwald. Alguns trechos podem ser lidos no Google books.

Por outro lado, um balanço de "As Tribos de Iahweh", feito pelo próprio Gottwald, pode se lido no texto Revisiting The Tribes of Yahweh.

Atualização:
Um belo testemunho sobre Gottwald foi escrito por Claude Mariottini em seu blog. Claude é biblista brasileiro, que vive e ensina nos Estados Unidos. Estudou com Gottwald no Graduate Theological Union, em Berkeley, Califórnia.

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